The pleasure of finding things out

I care to introduce you to Richard Feynman

Feynman is arguably one of the most distinguished physicist of the 20th century.

Richard Feynman died in 1988 and during his lifetime he gained a reputation of spelling his scientific ideas out exactly as he saw them. He dared to be different and in doing so was open to freely discussing conceptual science. If you are open minded to new ideas in physics I think that you will enjoy listening to what Feynman has to say in this dated Horizon video. This includes his pleasure of finding things out.

Going backwards in time before your eyes

We have been told that in physics that it is not possible to travel back in time. However, around seventy years ago a highly respected physicist by the name of David Bohm pointed out by analogy that in his opinion there exists a ‘layer’ of universal reality that he referred to as the implicate order. His analogy was along the lines of this experimental quotation:-


“…It consists of two concentric glass cylinders. Between them is a viscous fluid, such as glycerine. If a drop of insoluble ink is placed in the glycerine and the outer cylinder is turned slowly, the drop of dye will be drawn out into a thread. Eventually the thread gets so diffused it cannot be seen. At that moment there seems to be no order present at all. Yet if you slowly turn the cylinder backward, the glycerine draws back into its original form, and suddenly the ink drop is visible again. The ink had been enfolded into the glycerine, and it was unfolded again by the reverse turning.

Suppose you put a drop of dye in the cylinder and turn it a few times, then put another drop in the same place and turn it. When you turn the cylinder back, wouldn’t you get a kind of oscillation?

Yes, you would get a movement in and out. We could put in one drop of dye and turn it and then put in another drop of dye at a slightly different place, and so on. The first and second droplets are folded a different number of times. If we keep this up and then turn the cylinder backward, the drops continually appear and disappear. So it would look as if a particle were crossing the space, but in fact it’s always the whole system that’s involved…” (I italicised the text)


I present you with two video references that demonstrate what these words mean. I also draw your attention to the fact that these experiments visually demonstrate how it is possible to reverse time under everyday conditions. Demonstrations one and two establish this point.

This appearing and  disappearing of the insoluble dye in the cylinder represents what I symbolically see as being the mechanical relationship between ordinary ‘things’ and events going on around us (represented by the diffused dye in the clear glycerine) and something ‘bigger’ than  us that is conceivably without time. This is the openness of the empty inner cylinder. As observers looking from the outside of the walls of the larger cylinder they would see the whole of the two glass cylinder apparatus system as though it were a single unit. This is until such time as the dye droplet was introduced to the system. In the process we would not notice that the droplet was confined to the space between the outer walls of both the larger and the smaller cylinder. I am suggesting that the progressive diffusing of the dye as a thread as it moves ‘ahead’ in clock time is related to the speed of the clockwise movement of the outer cylinder.

However, as observers outside the system we would not notice this separation of the wider complete system. In this sense we might say that the empty inner area of the smaller cylinder of the system is an area (or continuum) without knowable dimensions or time. The area outside of it containing the glycerine is an area that we can observe with clock time. This is because we can measure the speed of the diffusing thread of dye as the outer cylinder rotates. It follows from this that visually we would not know that the ‘area’ inside the smaller contained cylinder existed in the first place. From this we might say that the dye is diffusing throughout the complete system as distinct from it moving from just one part of it.  We might then say that there exists within the system two areas (continuums) as though they are one. I say that as the turning larger cylinder later reverts to moving in an anti-clockwise state of motion, it progressively re-establishes its former non diffused (nearly complete) droplet state. This is notionally both within the without time (informational) reference frame of the invisible ‘contents’ of the inner cylinder as well as the adjacent clock time reference frame containing the glycerine and the dye. It is within the clock time reference frame that the dye is backward enfolding itself on itself as though it had a memory to exactly do this. This suggests that it is moving backwards in time commensurate to some sort of universal order and rules that scientists do not yet understand. We might then assume that the same unknown rules and conditions are applicable to the empty contents of the smaller cylinder as well. In other words it might then be argued that these same rules and universal conditions are applicable to the universe as a whole. If this is the case then these words support my notion that the universe is a two layer one and as such this is consistent with Bohm’s theory that there is both an implicate and explicate order in the universe.

Taking my ideas one step further, I feel that what we must consider in this instance is that this without time reference frame of ‘something’ in the smaller cylinder is one that might be of an analogical ether type (although it is perhaps easier to visualise it as being a ‘blob’ of informational consciousness). I am suggesting that this ether of information is conscious of both itself as well as the happenings (day to day effects) of mechanical things and events taking place around it. In this case it is within the space (continuum) between its outer wall perimeter and the outer wall of the larger cylinder.

As the outer cylinder reverts to moving in an anti-clock wise direction (with its contents of dye moving from a diffused state to a indiffused state, we observe the mechanical effects of the dye progressively re-threading itself to its original droplet state.

I am suggesting that the dye within the time cylinder continuum is conjunctionally moving in both relationship to the clock time continuum within which it is moving as well as an mechanically indeterminable without time informational ether blob like continuum. It is this blob of ether information (through its consciousness) that ensures that the coding (like a bar code) of the information of diffusing and refusing of the dye is never lost. This is although observably to us it seems to be moving only in clock time in both of the directions that the cylinder moves. In other words as the quotes says “…it is always the whole system that’s  involved…” with all things and events going on around us at all times.

This is consistent with both the proof of concept as described in the quotation as well as the two video links cited above as well.  I suggest that the following physics quotation relating to droplet ‘path memory’ is complimentary to this debate as well.


“… In each test, the droplet wends a chaotic path that, over time, builds up the same statistical distribution in the fluid system as that expected of particles at the quantum scale. But rather than resulting from indefiniteness or a lack of reality, these quantum-like effects are driven, according to the researchers, by “path memory.”Every bounce of the droplet leaves a mark in the form of ripples, and these ripples chaotically but deterministically influence the droplet’s future bounces and lead to quantum-like statistical outcomes. The more path memory a given fluid exhibits — that is, the less its ripples dissipate — the crisper and more quantum-like the statistics become. “Memory generates chaos, which we need to get the right probabilities,” Couder explained. “We see path memory clearly in our system. It doesn’t necessarily mean it exists in quantum objects, it just suggests it would be possible…” (I italicised the text)


From these ideas you may assume that I am suggesting that ‘universal reality’ is dualistic. This is analogous to a two dimensional ‘layer’ universe about which the informational layer (Bohm’s invisible and indivisible implicate order layer) is the ‘dominant player’ in this universal system and Bohm’s explicit layer is materially visible and divisible quanta that include particles. If you consider the analogy and my commentary, you might say that these particles are not only crossing material space but also the whole of the described system as well. This includes the ether continuum described. This analogy might also demonstrate how mechanical clock time can ‘comfortably’ co- exist with a wider informational blob of without time ‘nothing’.

I am committed to the notion that all things and events taking place in the universe (including the ‘workings’ of you and me) are in this dualistic state that I refer to as an explicit and implicit state.

If you care to know a little more about the wider back ground of Bohm’s ideas in this area you might find that this reference is a useful link in order to do so.

Well known physicist Lawrence Krauss talks about why he feels contemporary physics is a fraud

I briefly quote Lawrence Krauss as follows:


“… Because science is not done in a vacuum. It is done in a social context, and the results of science have important implications for society, even if it is simply providing a general understanding of how we humans fit into the cosmos. Thus, simply producing new knowledge, without making any attempt to help disseminate it and explain it, is not enough. I think one cannot expect every scientist to spend time on the effort to explain science. But in a society in which the science is of vital importance and also in which many forces are trying to distort the results of science, it is crucial that some of us speak out …”

I italicized the text above

See source to read the complete article.

A blog for the Curious and the Scientifically Perplexed

This Journey by Starlight blog is one in a series originally written by Ian Flitcroft. I am uncertain as to how many stories Flitcroft have been published. However, I recently discovered this post on line. It is one that I feel you might consider to be amongst the most descriptive and easy to understand educational science blogs that you have ever come across. I consider that the contents might be particularly useful for secondary high school science students (they are primarily physics related). There are fifty two science related short stories incorporated therein.


Differentiating the quantum Bears from the sub-quantum Mice with respect to my science-related writings


I acknowledge that many of my readers are finding it difficult to understand a good deal of the science related ideas that I have been posting in my blogs. Unfortunately it is beyond my capacity to attempt to present such ideas in any other form. This includes my philosophical ideas as well.

It is for this reason that in my blogs I refer to myself as being a philosophical concept-scientist. I have had no formal tertiary training in science, nor in physical theories or observation and measurement practice.

However, I will broadly attempt to explain what self-taught ideas and theories I work with when I talk to you about science, especially with theories related to physics.

For your convenience today I will make my story as informationally down to earth as I can. My sole intention is to attempt to help you to ‘get your head around’ some of the ideas in my science blogs in order to assist you to better context them. I have organised this blog so that you have a role to play in this debate and process as well. It does not matter if either one of us has got the science involved absolutely accurately. It is the bigger picture relating to the everyday reality of our lives and living circumstances that is far more important than this. This is why I have attempted to draw your attention to this blog in the first place.

I have numbered what I consider to be the key points you need to know with respect to my science related ideas. These especially include theories relating to my philosophical views about reality as well. I believe that philosophy and science should work hand in hand together in order for us to understand reality. As you read on I feel sure you will appreciate why I say this.

1. A line.

I suggest that you draw a straight line across the middle of a piece of paper the size of a writing pad. Refer to the space above this line as being a bears zone containing all scientific information relating to my analogical bears. Consider science related information below the line to be a mice zone relating to analogical mice.

You have created a two dimensional format with respect to the following words.

2. The bears zone.

The line that you have drawn represents what is known in physics as the Planck Line (also called a Planck length). The Plank Line separates the material ‘things’ and processes going on around us from that which is not material, such as our abstract (metaphysical) consciousnesses.

I suggest that you nominate this bears zone as being your material quantum zone (a system doing this, that and the other, relating to material things and events related such as drawing your line as I suggested that you do.) In other words, the bears zone is where all explicit things (all things that you can observe and measure) are occurring, including our daily lives.

The bears zone can also be seen as the zone in which moving objects have a specific relevance and meaning with respect to the bears zone itself and to what we commonly call space. With time incorporated within space, you may nominate space as being anything you like (say foam) because no one knows exactly what constitutes space except that it is a form of energy. I see space as being like the white of an uncooked egg that can be stretched in all manner of directions without becoming divided in any way. By this I mean indivisible as a single ‘thing’.

Therefore you can consider that all big and small material things (objects) and events (such as raising your arm) take place in the bears zone, with respect to time. Small movements relating to distance such as raising your arm are measured by clocks, and movements relating to long distances between objects (say planets) are measured relative to the speed of light, which is 299,792 kilometres per second.

This means that when physicists say that certain objects or happenings over long distances of space (like matters relating to planets moving away from each other or the effects of heat transfer rates between objects that might include these same two planets, if it were occurring at all) occur in relation to the speed of light and not clocks. In other words clocks measuring time are only relevant for timing short or medium length distances.

You might see from my over simplified words that all physical happenings in the bears zone are reasonably straightforward to follow.

However, things and events taking place below your Planck line are a lot more complicated to understand than this, because they are more philosophically abstract. This does not mean that they are not demonstrably real such as in the case of consciousness. They may not be materially real but they certainly can be described and demonstrated.

How is it then that the bears and the mice in their respective zones entangle with each other in order to play all sorts of chaotic ‘games’? They might have some sort of physical and philosophical relationship. I suggest that it is from this chaotic game with the mice ‘teasing and playing’ with the bears on both sides of your Planck line that material things and associated events and processes emerge that scientists can better understand, observe and measure.

Both the bears and the mice in their respective zones need each other for the wider universe around us to work in the manner that it does. This is to influence the movement between objects, life and the diverse life forms and their activities in the wider universe. This includes the metaphysical aspects of life forms (mice) such as consciousness and intuition too.

3. The mice zone.

The mice zone is where all the mysterious things of a metaphysical nature take place (metaphysical in physics means not yet known about or discovered in physics yet). The mice zone is where unpredictable mice and bear related ‘incidents’ occur that in one way or another have some sort of connection to our lives and the wider world around us. Without the mice in the mice zone, the bears in the bear zone would not have any science related relevance or meaning. I believe that when our organic bear selves die, our mice component selves continue to ‘live on’ within the abstract mice zone

In other words I say that the mice zone is a zone unto itself that has no specific material scientific meaning except that without it we, with other forms of things and events related thereto could not exist. The mice zone and its mice can be seen as the life-force of all that IS (all things and related events) in our universe. It is the engine of the bears zone system along with all the bears within it as well.

The space below your Planck line is referred to by physicists as the sub-quantum processes of physics (a zone). Philosophers in the eastern tradition have long written about this analogical mice zone of reality as being like a zone that we attempt to transcend into and pleasantly experience and relax within when we meditate.

The words above are suggesting that our universal reality and existence are related to the respective mice and bears zone physics systems and processes along the extremely general and sometimes unreal lines that I have described. The bears quantum system relates to material things and associated events and processes that equate to the minimal amount of something that can be observed, measured and tested.

On the other hand the mice (sub-quantum) physics system is one that is an erratic multi-layered (chaotic) system that seems to embrace some sort of consciousness known solely to itself. It seems to be the hidden and mysterious ‘organiser’ of all that IS in the wider world around us. This includes ourselves and our life activities as well. In the two dimensional zone of mice, life and death have no specific meaning. When embraced with the bears in the bears zone it does.

This implies that the rules of physics between the bears are knowable and predictable whereas any rules relating to physics amongst mice are not. However, sophisticated mathematical predictions can test the possible future activities in the mice zone that often later legitimise their existence and associated ‘unruly’ behaviour.

4. Summary

I have given you guidelines as to how you might be able to better appreciate and understand the features and meaning of the different types of science and philosophical related topics (embracing bears and mice).

Because of the overall chaotic nature of the wider universe around us (including within our lives) I do not believe that there ever can be a single set of rules relating to physics science of all that IS. This is from within the wider world we bears (embracing metaphysical mice) from which we organise and conduct our daily lives.

I have employed the analogical concepts of bears and mice in order to convey my story to you because I feel that by writing in such a light hearted sense I would better entice you to be more interested in this blog than otherwise might have been the case. I have also attempted to lure you to smile and perhaps giggle along the way as well.

In my story it has been for a matter of convenience that I have not discussed the respective roles of electricity, magnetism and charge that are also key players in the world of physics. In this sense you may consider all three of these ‘effects’ as being mice behaviour in the mice zone of my two dimensional life zone concept.

The shortcomings of my two dimensional story about universal reality are probably clear to you. For example it would probably be better if you could imagine my two dimensional illustrative concept as being one that is a more conventional three dimensional one that is analogically floating in a partly inflated transparent balloon. The balloon analogy is representative of the ever- changing, flexing and expanding nature of the universe and within this balloon the mice and the bears are not ‘dancing’ with each across a single line but with each other in an entangled chaotic ‘mess’. However, as I have suggested above, somehow or other this chaotic mess has a meaning and a purpose of some type that one day might be better understood by scientists.

In my blogs from time to time you will see where I refer to the words explicit and implicit. You may assume that all things and events relating to my concept of bears are explicit and all things and events related to mice are mysteriously and metaphysically implicit.

You might also feel that this link is complimentary to this blog. It is written in a different style but the overall message is similar. You may find this sixty minute video complimentary to my story as well.

Please feel comfortable about posting comments to me relating to this blog.


Does objective reality exist?

I believe that this is an open ended question. I think it depends upon what context one considers what the word reality means. Keep in mind when you read this item that as Nima Arkani-Hamed tells us contemporary physics theories are still struggling to come up with a theory of everything . This means that all things (information) relating to the concept of reality are possible!

What follows is an extract from an article written around twenty years ago by a Physics-Philosopher named Michael Talbot (now deceased). I have elected to embrace a small section of Talbot’s article into this website because I see his composition as being a useful representation of many of my conceptual science views about the wider world (universe) around us. This is as well as the science that might help us to better appreciate and understand it.

It is for this reason I suggest that you consider this extract and if you find its contents interesting and compelling I urge you to read the full article article via means of the link below.

In the past I have used this article as my analogical reference ‘bible’ with respect to the numerous bits and pieces of science that I have introduced you to throughout this website today. As you would expect Talbot’s views do not always mirror my own beliefs about reality-science. You may have already found by now my principle focus in concept science is upon every day reality science as it might relate to the human condition.

In order to assist you to better appreciate and understand Talbot’s message in this extract I have emboldened and italicised certain sections of text as well as making a commentary in one important area.


Does Objective Reality Exist?

By Michael Talbot

University of London physicist David Bohm, (my favorite reference physicist) for example, believes Aspect’s findings imply that objective reality does not exist, that despite its apparent solidity the universe is at heart a phantasm, a gigantic and splendidly detailed hologram.

To understand why Bohm makes this startling assertion, one must first understand a little about holograms. A hologram is a three- dimensional photograph made with the aid of a laser. To make a hologram, the object to be photographed is first bathed in the light of a laser beam. Then a second laser beam is bounced off the reflected light of the first and the resulting interference pattern (the area where the two laser beams commingle) is captured on film. When the film is developed, it looks like a meaningless swirl of light and dark lines. But as soon as the developed film is illuminated by another laser beam, a three-dimensional image of the original object appears. The three-dimensionality of such images is not the only remarkable characteristic of holograms. If a hologram of a rose is cut in half and then illuminated by a laser, each half will still be found to contain the entire image of the rose. Indeed, even if the halves are divided again, each snippet of film will always be found to contain a smaller but intact version of the original image. Unlike normal photographs, every part of a hologram contains all the information possessed by the whole. The “whole in every part” nature of a hologram provides us with an entirely new way of understanding organization and order. For most of its history, Western science has labored under the bias that the best way to understand a physical phenomenon, whether a frog or an atom, is to dissect it and study its respective parts.

A hologram teaches us that some things in the universe may not lend themselves to this approach. If we try to take apart something constructed holographically, we will not get the pieces of which it is made, we will only get smaller wholes. This insight suggested to Bohm another way of understanding Aspect’s discovery. Bohm believes the reason subatomic particles are able to remain in contact with one another regardless of the distance separating them is not because they are sending some sort of mysterious signal back and forth, but because their separateness is an illusion. He argues that at some deeper level of reality such particles are not individual entities, but are actually extensions of the same fundamental something.

Me: I suggest that you take a special note of the above emboldened text. This is a very important feature of my conceptual science beliefs.

To enable people to better visualize what he means, Bohm offers the following illustration.

Imagine an aquarium containing a fish. Imagine also that you are unable to see the aquarium directly and your knowledge about it and what it contains comes from two television cameras, one directed at the aquarium’s front and the other directed at its side. As you stare at the two television monitors, you might assume that the fish on each of the screens are separate entities. After all, because the cameras are set at different angles, each of the images will be slightly different. But as you continue to watch the two fish, you will eventually become aware that there is a certain relationship between them. When one turns, the other also makes a slightly different but corresponding turn; when one faces the front, the other always faces toward the side. If you remain unaware of the full scope of the situation, you might even conclude that the fish must be instantaneously communicating with one another, but this is clearly not the case.

This, says Bohm, is precisely what is going on between the subatomic particles in Aspect’s experiment. According to Bohm, the apparent faster-than-light connection between subatomic particles is really telling us that there is a deeper level of reality we are not privy to, a more complex dimension beyond our own that is analogous to the aquarium. And, he adds, we view objects such as subatomic particles as separate from one another because we are seeing only a portion of their reality.

Such particles are not separate “parts”, but facets of a deeper and more underlying unity that is ultimately as holographic and indivisible as the previously mentioned rose. And since everything in physical reality is comprised of these “eidolons”, the universe is itself a projection, a hologram.

In addition to its phantomlike nature, such a universe would possess other rather startling features. If the apparent separateness of subatomic particles is illusory, it means that at a deeper level of reality all things in the universe are infinitely interconnected. The electrons in a carbon atom in the human brain are connected to the subatomic particles that comprise every salmon that swims, every heart that beats, and every star that shimmers in the sky. Everything interpenetrates everything, and although human nature may seek to categorize and pigeonhole and subdivide, the various phenomena of the universe, all apportionments are of necessity artificial and all of nature is ultimately a seamless web.

In a holographic universe, even time and space could no longer be viewed as fundamentals. Because concepts such as location break down in a universe in which nothing is truly separate from anything else, time and three-dimensional space, like the images of the fish on the TV monitors, would also have to be viewed as projections of this deeper order. At its deeper level reality is a sort of superhologram in which the past, present, and future all exist simultaneously. This suggests that given the proper tools it might even be possible to someday reach into the superholographic level of reality and pluck out scenes from the long-forgotten past….”



Did you know that thoughts might exist outside your head?


Thoughts and emotions are energetic expressions of human consciousness. We all agree that thoughts are real; but would it surprise you to know that your thoughts exist outside of your head! Quantum mechanics, which is the most powerful explanation of reality as we know it, has demonstrated that every particle has an associated “information wave” or wave envelop that travels with and guides the particle. Particles always move slower than the speed of light while the information waves guiding them always move faster than the speed of light. From this perspective, thought and intention are seen as an informational part of the transduction of energy from higher dimensional, faster than light waveforms into our familiar 4 dimensional sub-light speed particle world.

It therefore seems reasonable that the most efficient form of therapeutic intervention to cure disturbances in our thoughts and emotions should operate at the quantum level of thought. (this is my web link) In the past 20 years, several revolutionary forms psychotherapy, thought field therapies, have evolved that utilize the body’s magnetic polarity and the meridians through which the “subtle” bioenergy flows to interact with our thoughts and associated emotions. Although the meridian system was mapped by the Chinese approximately 5,000 years ago and apparently known to the Oete Valley “Iceman” nearly 1000 years earlier, only recently has this system been studied and verified by western science. Today, we know that meridians can be activated mechanically, electrically, optically and likely by focused intention. Systematic activation of meridians holds the key to unlocking mental and emotional disturbances.

A thought energy field is viewed as a collection of thoughts or attributes that are inter-related by their common theme or experience and bound together as a functional unit. Thoughts are the information that first precipitates from energy as it begins a process of slowing down until finally it is slowed to standstill, as if frozen in time in the form of matter. In this view, mind and matter differ little at all; they are simply different transformational steps is the process of creating manifest 4 dimensional reality.

Thought energy fields, like other fields, carry information, have memory, and can be perturbed causing mental disquietude. The perturbation or disruption of the free flow of energy within the thought field is seen as the fundamental cause of all negative emotions and is the target of thought energy therapies balancing or synchronizing interventions.

When treating a psychological problem, or more specifically the perturbation in the client’s related thought field, the client attunes a specific thought (e.g., a traumatic memory or the thought of a feared situation) much like a radio receiver tunes in a specific station. Therapy begins by testing for and correcting absent or reversed biomagnetic polarities that are associated with chronically negativistic thinking and self-sabotaging behaviors. Thought Energy therapy continues by activating a sequence of points on the bioenergy meridians affected by the perturbation using one of several methods. Likewise, the precise order of meridians to be stimulated can be determined by one of several diagnostic procedures. The end goal of treatment is to reinstate a balance by relieving the impediment to the free flow of energy through the thought field thereby allowing cognitive, emotional, and ultimately biochemical health.


It can be shown that we do not live in isolated systems

It can be mathematically and (significantly) organically demonstrated that we exist as a unified whole. Mathematically it can be shown that this holistic unity is as a result of the existence of unknowable energy type formations that ontologically manifest themselves in nature  as objects. Fractals are objects in which the same patterns occur again and again at different scales and sizes.. These objects include flowers, trees, mountain range formation, cloud patterns and body parts and object shapes such as human faces.

They manifest themselves in organic structures in the visual form of self similarity in such objects. This “self-similarity” goes infinitely deep: each pattern is made up of smaller copies of itself, and those smaller copies are made up of smaller copies again, forever in a perfect mathematical fractal set. In mathematics this is known as the Mandelbrot set. A video demonstration of this self-similarity going infinitely deep (forever) can be seen here.

I suggest that fractal theory provides a pointer to what many people might see as the shortcomings of contemporary main stream physics theories. However, one of the eighteen versions of quantum mechanics probably does. This means that one day it could conceivably be linked to a suitable mechanical physics model such as the Bohm implicate order model.

Does fundamental physics have a future?

Some physicists believe that in its current form it does not.

I share with my readers the ideas about physics of the noted  theoretical physicist Nima Arkani-Hamed

The principle text can be found here. I have extracted the numerous quotes below from this paper in order to provide you with a guide to what I feel are the principle themes Nima Arkani-Hamed is promoting. The text speaks for itself. Some of the text is scientifically complex but because the text is laced with easier to understand philosophy you will probably find it is not too difficult to generally understand what the author is talking about.



Fundamental physics began the twentieth century with the twin revolutions of relativity and quantum mechanics, and much of the second half of the century was devoted to the construction of a theoretical structure unifying these radical ideas. But this foundation has also led us to a number of paradoxes in our understanding of nature. Attempts to make sense of quantum mechanics and gravity at the smallest distance scales lead inexorably to the conclusion that space-time is an approximate notion that must emerge from more primitive building blocks. Furthermore, violent short-distance quantum fluctuations in the vacuum seem to make the existence of a macroscopic world wildly implausible, and yet we live comfortably in a huge universe. What, if anything, tames these fluctuations? Why is there a macroscopic universe? These are two of the central theoretical challenges of fundamental physics in the twenty-first century. In this essay, I describe the circle of ideas surrounding these questions, as well as some of the theoretical and experimental fronts on which they are being attacked…”

Beyond the abstract:

“…But there is a deeper reason to suspect that something much more interesting and subtle than “atoms of space-time” is at play. The problems with space-time are not only localised to small distances; in a precise sense, “inside” regions of space-time cannot appear in any fundamental description of physics at all…”

“…The fact that quantum mechanics makes it impossible to determine precisely the position and velocity of a baseball is also irrelevant to a baseball player. However, it is of fundamental importance to physics that we cannot speak precisely of position and momentum, but only position or momentum…”

“…This simple observation has huge implications. As discussed above, precise observables require a separation of the world into a) an infinitely large measuring apparatus and b) the system being studied…”

“…It should be clear that we have arrived at a bifurcatory moment in the history of fundamental physics, a moment that has enormous implications for the future of the subject. With many theoretical speculations pointing in radically different directions, it is now up to experiment to render its verdict!…”

“…Today, however, we confront even deeper mysteries, such as coming to grips with emergent time and the application of quantum mechanics to the entire universe. These challenges call for a bigger shift in perspective. Is there any hope for taking such large steps without direct input from experiment?…” [Emergent time relates to the concept of ‘NOW’ and associated simultaneity].

“…Why should it be possible to talk about Newton’s laws in such a different way, which seems to hide their most essential feature of deterministic evolution in time? [Which I agree with] We now know the deep answer to this question is that the world is quantum-mechanical…”

“…There must be a new way of thinking about quantum field theories, in which space-time locality is not the star of the show and these remarkable hidden structures are made manifest. Finding this reformulation might be analogous to discovering the least-action formulation of classical physics; by removing space-time from its primary place in our description of standard physics, we may be in a better position to make the leap to the next theory, where space-time finally ceases to exist…”

I have emboldened italicised the text and in different places I have bracketed my opinions between them as well.


Traveling faster than the speed of light. Is this possible?

Some physicists believe that under certain circumstances ‘something’ can travel more than ten thousand times more than the speed of light. This might be within a without time reference frame as distinct from a clock time reference frame as postulated by Einstein physics.

It is generally believed in physics that nothing travels faster than the speed of light. Physics is now beginning to be challenged by this point of view. A cosmic phenomena known as the EPR paradox has strongly suggested that this is exactly what is happening. It is described and tested by quantum entanglement theory. It has been scientifically proven by experiment that a particle on one side of the universe can instantly influence another on the opposite side of the universe. Some physicists are saying:


“… The minimum speed of the entanglement influence is just the one divided by the other, or 144,500 times the speed of light. However, a number of factors go into the interpretation of the results, which reduce the lower limit of the speed of entanglement influence to about 10,000 times the speed of light.

Notice that this result does not eliminate the possibility that the influence of entanglement actually is instantaneous – it merely sets a limit saying how close the influence must be to infinitely fast. Another possibility that is gaining credence is that entanglement dynamics may operate external to time, or at least may ignore time as it ignores distance…”.


The experiment that supports this hypothesis can be found on this link