Is there something significantly awry with the international Psychology profession?

It seems that this might be the case. I will introduce you to this culturally important topic by means of the quotation immediately below. It is an investigative report into the international Psychology Community that was first published in 2012. The report broadly relates to what I feel that many people might see as being the unbecoming professional attitude and behaviour of certain sections and groups of the international Psychology fraternity. In this presentation I am not implying that all psychology practitioners are engaged in the professional shortcomings cited throughout this blog!

Quote:

“Measuring the Prevalence of Questionable Research Practices With Incentives for Truth Telling…”

“… We assume that the vast majority of researchers are sin-cerely motivated to conduct sound scientific research. Further-more, most of the respondents in our study believed in the integrity of their own research and judged practices they had engaged in to be acceptable. However, given publication pres-sures and professional ambitions, the inherent ambiguity of the defensibility of “questionable” research practices, and the well-documented ubiquity of motivated reasoning (Kunda, 1990), researchers may not be in the best position to judge the defensibility of their own behavior. This could in part explain why the most egregious practices in our survey (e.g., falsify-ing data) appear to be less common than the relatively less questionable ones (e.g., failing to report all of a study’s condi-tions). It is easier to generate a post hoc explanation to justify removing nuisance data points than it is to justify outright data falsification, even though both practices produce similar consequences…”.

(I emboldened and italicised the text)

Source

I present you with ten feature stories to consider:

Note: All text within items 1-10 below is quoted from the source link immediately adjacent to it.

1. The Problem With Psychology

A brief history of the heterodox movement in psychology. What Is the Point of the Heterodox Movement in Psychology? The Heterodox Movement in Psychology serves a primary purpose: to challenge the field’s prevailing narratives, develop a truly pluralistic approach within academic psychology, and to increase viewpoint diversity in the field. This movement genuinely seeks to change the playing field.

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2. Why Modern Clinical Psychology May Be in Trouble

Today’s clinical science might actually limit professionals.

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3. A Revolution Is Happening in Psychology, Here’s How It’s Playing Out

In the last decade, behavioral scientists concluded that their field had taken a wrong turn. Efforts to root out false findings and bad practices spurred a crisis now poised to transform the landscape of psychology. Meet four scientists who are leading the charge.

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4. Psychologists Have a Plan to Fix the Broken Science of Psychology

There was something wrong with psychology. A cascade of warning signs arrived all at once in 2011. Famous psychological experiments failed, over and over, when researchers re-did them in their own labs. Even worse, the standard methods researchers used in their labs turned out under close scrutiny to be wishy-washy enough to prove just about anything. Nonsense, ridiculous claims turned up in major journals. It was a moment of crisis.

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5. How much of the psychology literature is wrong?

A replication movement is afoot in psychology. But researchers disagree about the scope and significance of its findings so far.

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6. Psychology’s Credibility Crisis: the Bad, the Good and the Ugly

As more studies are called into question and researchers bicker over methodology, the field is showing a healthy willingness to face its problems 2016

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7. Fraud Case Seen as a Red Flag for Psychology Research NY Times

In a survey of more than 2,000 American psychologists scheduled to be published this year, Leslie John of Harvard Business School and two colleagues found that 70 percent had acknowledged, anonymously, to cutting some corners in reporting data. About a third said they had reported an unexpected finding as predicted from the start, and about 1 percent admitted to falsifying data.

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8. Psychology Rife with Inaccurate Research Findings

Latest scandal one in a series of embarrassments for psychology.

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9. Willingness to Share Research Data Is Related to the Strength of the Evidence and the Quality of Reporting of Statistical Results

Our findings on the basis of psychological papers suggest that statistical results are particularly hard to verify when reanalysis is more likely to lead to contrasting conclusions. This highlights the importance of establishing mandatory data archiving policies.

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10. Medical Error Interview

Author and psychologist Brian Hughes talks about how bad science and scientists can lead to harming people. Brian connects the dots between bad psychological science and how that can lead to medical error and patient harm.

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The International History of Sexology

I present you with a document that I feel contains information that you have probably never heard about before. I introduce the document by quoting an opening introduction to the paper itself. I believe that its contents are self explanatory.

Quote:

“INTRODUCTION: THE HISTORY AND CONCEPT OF SEXOLOGY

In our Western civilization attempts at a rational and systematic study of human sexual behavior date back at least to the ancient Greeks. Indeed, physicians like Hippocrates and the philosophers Plato and Aristotle can be claimed as the legitimate forefathers of sex research, since they made extensive observations and offered the first elaborate theories regarding sexual responses and dysfunctions, reproduction and contraception, abortion, sex legislation, and sexual ethics. In imperial Rome, Greek physicians like Soranus and Galen further advanced and systematized ancient sexual knowledge. Their work, in turn, prompted later Islamic scholars to devote a great deal of attention to sexual questions. These studies, originally written in Arabic, were translated and introduced into medieval Europe. Together with re-edited Greek and Roman manuscripts, they became standard texts at newly established medical schools and stimulated a rebirth of anatomical research in the 16th, 17th, and 18th centuries. The names of Fallopio (Fallopian tubes), de Graaf (Graafian follicles), Berthelsen (Bartholin’s glands) and Cowper (Cowper’s glands) recall, even today, the first flowering of modern anatomy and remain associated with the then newly discovered parts of human sexual anatomy. The Age of Enlightenment ushered in a vigorous and increasingly secularized discussion of sexual ethics and produced the first programs of public and private sex education as well as new classifications and documentations of sexual behavior. In the 19th century, new concerns about overpopulation, sexual psychopathy and degeneracy gave rise to the concept of “sexuality” and led to intensified efforts on many fronts to get a firmer intellectual grasp on a subject matter that rapidly seemed to grow ever more complex. Biological, medical, historical, and anthropological research by von Baer, Darwin, Mendel, Kaan, Morel, Magnan, Charcot, Westphal, Burton, Morgan, Mantegazza, Westermarck, Krafft-Ebing, Schrenck-Notzing, and others, laid the foundations of sex research in the modern, more specific sense. Finally, at the turn of the 20th century, the pioneering work of Havelock Ellis, Sigmund Freud, and Iwan Bloch established the investigation of sexual problems as a legitimate endeavor in its own right.”

Source

PDF file of the original document

Ancient Romans loved to keep clean

If you are a student of ancient history I think that you will find this article from the UK History Learning Site is insightful and interesting.

Citation: C N Trueman “Medicine in Ancient Rome”

It was first published on 17 Mar 2015 and updated on 18 Dec 2019.

Quote:

“Medicine in Ancient Rome

The Ancient Romans, like the Ancient Greeks and Ancient Egyptians, made a huge input into medicine and health, though their input was mainly concerned with public health schemes. Though the Roman ‘discoveries’ may not have been in the field of pure medicine, poor hygiene by people was a constant source of disease, so any improvement in public health was to have a major impact on society.

The Romans learned a great deal from the Ancient Greeks. They first came into contact with the Greeks in about 500 BC By 146 B.C. part of Greece had become a province of the Roman Empire and by 27 B.C., the Romans were in control not only of Greece but of Greek-speaking lands around the Mediterranean.

They used the ideas of the Greeks but they did not simply copy them. Greek ideas they found impractical they ignored and it seems that the Romans were more keen on things that would lead to the direct improvement of the quality of life of the people in their huge empire.

“The Greeks are famous for their cities and in this they aimed at beauty. The Romans excelled in those things which the Greeks took little interest in such as the building of roads, aqueducts and sewers.”
– Strabo, a Greek geographer

Though Strabo may have been less than accurate, it does seem that the Romans were more practical especially as the Romans do seem to have been more interested in mathematics and solving practical problems.

“The Greeks held the geometer in the highest honour, and, to them, no-one came before mathematicians. But we Romans have established as the limit of this art, its usefulness in measuring and reckoning. The Romans have always shown more wisdom than the Greeks in all their inventions, or else improved what they took over from them, such things at least as they thought worthy of serious attention.”
– Cicero, Roman writer.

In the early years of the Roman Empire, there were no people in what would be a separate medical profession. It was believed that each head of the household knew enough about herbal cures and medicine to treat illnesses in his household. The Roman writer Pliny wrote:

“Unwashed wool supplies very many remedies…..it is applied….with honey to old sores. Wounds it heals if dipped in wine or vinegar….yolks of eggs….are taken for dysentery with the ash of their shells, poppy juice and wine. It is recommended to bathe the eyes with a decoction of the liver and to apply the marrow to those that are painful or swollen.”
– Pliny, Roman writer

As the Roman Empire expanded into Greece, many Greek doctors came to Italy and Rome. Some of these were prisoners of war and could be bought by wealthy Romans to work in a household. Many of these doctors became valuable additions to a household. It is known that a number of these men bought their freedom and set up their own practices in Rome itself. After 200 BC, more Greek doctors came to Rome but their success at the expense of Romans did generate some mistrust.

Pliny did not trust Greek doctors:

“I pass over many famous physicians men like Cassius, Calpetanus, Arruntius and Rubrius. 250,000 sesterces were their annual incomes from the emperors. There is no doubt that all these physicians in their hunt for popularity by means of some new idea, did not hesitate to buy it with our lives. Medicine changes everyday, and we are swept along on the puffs of clever brains of the Greeks…..as if thousands of people do not live without physicians – though not, of course, without medicine.”

However, despite Pliny’s caution, many Greek physicians had the support of the emperors and the best known doctors were highly popular with the Roman public. Pliny wrote that when Thessalus walked around in public, he attracted greater crowds than any of the famous actors and chariot riders based in Rome.

The Romans and Public Health

The Romans were great believers in a healthy mind equalling a healthy body. There was a belief that if you kept fit, you would be more able to combat an illness. Rather than spend money on a doctor, many Romans spent money on keeping fit.

“A person should put aside some part of the day for the care of his body. He should always make sure that he gets enough exercise especially before a meal.”
– Celsus

The Romans did believe that illnesses had a natural cause and that bad health could be caused by bad water and sewage. Hence their desire to improve the public health system in the Roman Empire so that everyone in their empire benefited. – not just the rich. Those who worked for the Romans needed good health as did their soldiers. In this sense, the Romans were the first civilisation to introduce a programme of public health for everyone regardless of wealth.

Roman cities, villas and forts were built in what were considered healthy places. The Romans knew not only where to build but also where not to build:

“When building a house or farm especial care should be taken to place it at the foot of a wooded hill where it is exposed to health-giving winds. Care should be taken where there are swamps in the neighbourhood, because certain tiny creatures which cannot be seen by the eyes breed there. These float through the air and enter the body by the mouth and nose and cause serious disease.” Marcus Varro.”There should be no marshes near buildings, for marshes give off poisonous vapours during the hot period of the summer. At this time, they give birth to animals with mischief-making stings which fly at us in thick swarms.”
– Columella.

The Romans became practised at draining marshes to rid areas of malaria-carrying mosquitoes. Julius Caesar drained the Codetan Swamp and planted a forest in its place.

The Romans paid special attention to the health of their soldiers as without these soldiers, the Roman Empire could collapse. Great emphasis was placed on soldiers having access to clean water and being able to keep fit. Commanders ordered their junior officers not to set up a camp too near a swamp and the drinking of swamp water was especially discouraged. Soldiers were moved around as it was believed that if they stayed too long in one place, they would start to suffer from the illnesses that might have existed in that area.

Clean water and the Romans

Clean water was very important to the Romans.

“We must take great care in searching for springs and, in selecting them, keeping in mind the health of the people.”
– Vitruvius, a Roman architect.

Cities, towns and forts were built near springs. However, as Roman cities and towns grew, they needed to bring in water from further afield. As the population grew, so did the need for clean water. Trying to shift large volumes of water underground in pipes was not possible as lead pipes would be too weak and bronze pipes would be too expensive.

The Romans could not make cast iron pipes as the techniques for doing this were not known to them. If water could not be brought via pipes, the Romans decided to bring it overland in what were conduits. When the water got to the city, it was fed off into smaller bronze or ceramic pipes. To get the water to flow at an even (and slow) pace, conduits were built on a slight slope. Valleys were crossed by using aqueducts. One of the most famous of these is the Pont du Gard aqueduct at Nimes in southern France. Where possible, the Romans did take water through tunnels but the hills needed to be relatively small for this to be successful.

Rome, as the capital of the empire, had to have an impressive water supply. The supply was designed by Julius Frontinus who was appointed Water Commissioner for Rome in 97 AD. The aqueducts that fed Rome carried an estimated 1000 million litres of water a day. Frontinus was clearly proud of his work but scathing of other well-known engineering works:

“Compare such important engineering works carrying so much water with the idle pyramids and the useless though famous buildings of the Greeks.””Water is brought into the city through aqueducts in such quantities that it is like a river flowing through the city. Almost every house has cisterns and water pipes and fountains.”
– Strabo, a Greek geographer

The Roman public baths and hygiene

Personal hygiene was also a major issue in the day-to-day life of the Romans. Their famous baths played an important part in this.

The baths were used by both rich and poor. Most Roman settlements contained a public bath of some sort. In Britain, the most famous are at Bath (then called Aquae Sulis by the Romans). The entrance fee for the baths were extremely small – usually about a quadrans (1/16th of a penny!). This extremely low price was to ensure that no-one did not bathe because it was too expensive.

From the writings of Seneca, we know that the Romans spent large sums of money building their baths. Seneca wrote about baths with walls covered in huge mirrors and marble with water coming out of silver taps! “And I’m talking only about the common people.” (Seneca) The baths of the rich included waterfalls according to Seneca. Even people who were sick were encouraged to bathe as it was felt that this would help them to regain their good health.

Roman houses and streets also had toilets. Other civilisations had also used toilets but they had been the preserve of the rich and were essentially a sign of your wealth. By 315 AD, it is said that Rome as a city had 144 public toilets which were flushed clean by running water. All forts had toilets in them.

To complement these toilets, the Romans also needed a sufficiently effective drainage system. Pliny, the writer, wrote that many Romans believed that Rome’s sewers were the city’s greatest achievement. Seven rivers were made to flow through the city’s sewers and served to flush any sewage out of them.

The importance of hygiene also extended as far as military hospitals which had drainage and sewage systems attached to them. Quite clearly, the Romans believed that an injured soldier would get back to health quicker recovering in a hygienic environment.”

Source

The blessing and curse of the people who never forget

A handful of people can recall almost every day of their lives in enormous detail – and after years of research, neuroscientists are finally beginning to understand how they do it.

A girl said that she could recall every day of her life since the age of 12. It seems that in rare cases some people have “total recall” memories about their lives.

I think you will find this BBC story very interesting.

Bridging the gap between quantum mechanics and psychotherapy

What follows below is a quotation from the Internet. The author Dr. Jennifer T. Young has taken the opportunity to review a U.C.L.A. conference in America in December 2015.

I have italicised and emboldened sections that I feel are the most pertinent for my readers to consider. It focuses upon hidden and unknowable influences and effects (metaphysical mysteries) that may somehow influence our self understanding of the manner in which we live and manage our lives (this is why we sometimes need mental health therapists to help us along in our daily lives simply by sharing). This blog is complimentary to my blog Towards a Psychology for the 21st Century

 For the purposes of this presentation readers may assume that where it primarily refers to the mental health discipline of Psychotherapy it equally applies to the medical disciplines of Psychiatry and Psychology as well. I quote Young as follows:-

Quote:

Dr. Dan Siegel and Dr. Menas Kafatos started the conference by warning the group it would be a “mind-blowing” day. The conference titled Consciousness, Quantum Physics and Psychotherapy was the start of a dialogue aiming to bridge a gap between two seemingly unrelated topics: quantum mechanics and psychotherapy.

A tall order for anyone.

This post will attempt to provide a rudimentary understanding of basic concepts of QM and psychotherapy as gleaned from the conference.

According to Dr. Kafatos, QM has been around for 115 years since Max Planck’s work involving black body radiation. Since then, the debate between classical and quantum physicists has been incessant and without resolution. Dr. Kafatos provided a high level description of basic quantum principles citing experiments such as the double slit experiment to explain how the act of observing an environment can change that environment. This experiment is mind-blowing in its implications: firing photons through two slits unobserved leaves a pattern indicating that photons are waves; but doing the same with a camera observing the firing changes the pattern, indicating that photons transform from waves to particles. If the mere act of observing can change photons from waves to particles, what else can observing do? Does this mean the act of observing something actually changes the observed? And when thinking about the power of observation, can it be related to the healing power of bearing witness to our patients’ narratives? Or to the healing ability of therapeutic presence?

In his discussion, Dr. Dan Siegel spoke to principles of mindsight and its relationship to QM. Incidentally, Dr. Siegel is renowned for his work in Interpersonal Neurobiology (IPNB), and is also an author, speaker, and psychiatrist who founded the Mindsight Institute at UCLA. I have attempted to summarize IPNB in a post written in 2008. However, Dr. Siegel’s work is far-reaching with a plethora of concepts that cannot be done justice in several blog posts, much less this one. Out of the many thought provoking concepts in his work, Dr. Siegel’s use of mindfulness, a manner of focusing attention where the individual is aware of being separate from their emotions, was particularly interesting when considering quantum physics.

So what are some of the core principles of quantum mechanics? They include: 1) all possibilities that can exist, do exist; 2) everything is connected; 3) the observer plays an active role in their experience of the universe; 4) opposites must exist (e.g. the complementarity of good and evil); 5) time does not exist; and 6) we create boundaries with our minds that don’t exist in reality. That is a lot to take in, but let’s focus on the latter. We create boundaries with our mind because we are perceiving the world around us with our five senses (and, depending on what you believe, maybe a 6th sense or more). To understand the world solely through our five senses is to adhere to classical physical (Newtonian) principles.  But what if there are other ways to understand our lives?

Dr. Siegel spoke about how symptoms as described in the DSM can be seen as an individual’s gravitation toward either chaos or rigidity. More specifically, when an individual attempts, unsuccessfully, to control his/her world or the people in it, or when he/she does not attain what was expected, they behave in a manner that represents chaos or rigidity. For example, if a person is uncertain about the nature of their health condition, they may attempt to control it by taking precautions that lead to anxiety and social withdrawal (rigidity), or they may manage the anxiety by minimizing the repercussions of their condition and self soothe, via behaviors such as substance use or impulsive shopping (chaos). There is a sense of being out-of-control. In essence, it is the human being’s desire to for certainty in order to feel a sense of ease about the future. However, in quantum mechanics, all possibilities are occurring, and as such, there is no certainty. Therefore, Dr. Siegel says, the psychotherapist’s job is not to help an individual seek certainty, but rather to accept uncertainty. Dr. Kafatos suggested freedom is the acceptance of uncertainty. So what can we do to be free?

IPNB offers techniques to help individuals self-soothe and expand their window of tolerance for lack of ease, or dis-ease. Much of this is done through meditation. Dr. Kafatos stated that transcendence is the space between two breaths. It is when one can be conscious and say to themselves, “I am that I am that I am.” Dr. Siegel created the Wheel of Awareness mindfulness meditation to facilitate the quieting of the mind so that a deeper connection to the mind and body can be cultivated.

So how does all this influence our work as therapists? Using mindfulness to self-soothe and regulate emotions is already common practice in the field. However, in what other ways can we use breathing to heal? In what ways can we use the breath to create a sense of craved connectedness, which quantum physicists suggest is omnipresent? How can we use the breath to decrease our experience of existential angst? How can we use our breath to find meaning in our lives? These are ideas that have been pondered in many traditions for centuries, but is newer to Western psychology. Future posts can explore these ideas.

For now, let’s stop here. To summarize, the following are some key takeaways from the seminar with their implications:

This conference was about the energy of the mind. Quantum physicists assert that all things that are possible are occurring and that particles do not act independently (also known as entanglement in quantum theory). Thus quantum physicists believe we are all interconnected and can cause change just by focusing our attention in certain ways. More specifically, Dr. Kafatos also asserted the observer has the key role in quantum physics, whereas in classical physics the observer’s observation does not affect the object being observed. Drs. Kafatos and Siegel agree that classical science relies on finite five senses to confirm certainty in an inherently uncertain world.

Taking this into account, our current model of psychotherapy aligns with classical physics where the clinician observes the patient, gathers data, conceptualizes the data and formulates the focus of treatment and develops a treatment plan to resolve the symptoms. It resembles a math equation. However, in a quantum view, the individual and their systems are not only interconnected but constantly changing. Does it make sense to maintain one focus for the duration of treatment? If everything is possible, how do we help our patients? When we diagnose, we categorize our patients and collapse possibilities to focus on a specific set of symptoms to guide our treatment. If therapists take into account the whole of the human being and the ecosystems of which they are a part, is focusing on a category or categories the best model to treat the complex human experience?

Dr. Siegel asserts that patients suffer from the angst of uncertainty, which they attempt to control manifesting in symptoms gravitating toward chaos or rigidity. They want happiness without sadness, health without illness, life without death. Drs. Kafatos and Siegel agree that both must exist (also known as complementarity in quantum theory). Dr. Siegel suggests that the therapist’s job is to make patients feel at ease with uncertainty; to help them focus their energy and attention in positive, healing ways. Psychologists should help their patients utilize their heart and mind, instinct and rationality, to maximize their sense of ease.

In, short this seminar raised more questions than it answered. But the implications indicated by the new science could be huge. The experience reinforced in me a belief that, as mental health professionals, we have an obligation to seek out what other fields of science have to say about the human condition.”

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Towards a new Psychology for the 21st Century

A review of the 2006 book publication ‘Irreducible mind: Towards a Psychology for the 21st Century’ written by Ulrich Mohrloff

Because I believe that Mohrloff’s words are ageless I do not see the fourteen year time gap between when he wrote his review and today as being relevant.

In my opinion this book review by Mohrloff is a must read for readers who seek to better understand and appreciate the original corner stones of contemporary psychology and psychiatry. Mohrloff talks at great length about what he sees are the two founding ‘fathers’ of these two mental health disciplines of medicine. These persons are Myers and James.

For the purposes of this blog I have linked psychology and psychiatry in the manner that I have as a matter of convenience. In my opinion they are much the same. I say this in the sense that neither of these disciplines accept the fact that the real world, together with our presence in it are by nature ‘flippant’ and unpredictable. In other words what is the ‘normal’ yard stick upon which we may observe and measure our every day life attitudes and subsequent behavior? This is whether they be socially correct (moral) or otherwise.

I think that it is this unpredictability surrounding our lives that Mohrloff is drawing our attention to. He seems to be saying that life should be considered to exist in the continuum of some sort of wider holistic whole that we have minimal control over yet at the same time this whole is like the grand concert master of every aspect of our lives. For example I will quote a few lines from chapter 2 of Mohrloff’s review…

Quote:

“The second chapter (by Emily Williams Kelly) summarizes the theoretical and empirical contributions of Myers to the investigation of the mind-body relation. His huge body of published writings is essentially an elaboration of the view that certain phenomena of psychology, particularly of abnormal psychology and psychical research, demonstrate that human personality is far more extensive than we ordinarily realize. According to Myers, our normal waking consciousness (which he calls the supraliminal consciousness) amounts to a relatively small selection of psychological elements and processes from a more extensive consciousness (which he calls the Subliminal Self), and the biological or-ganism, instead of producing consciousness, limits and shapes ordinary waking con-sciousness out of this larger, mostly latent, Self. In Myers’s view, evolution has a subjective element from the start.  It began with an un-differentiated sensory capacity,… (now quoting Myers)

“… which possessed the power of responding in an indefinite number of ways to an indefinite num-ber of stimuli. It was only the accident of its exposure to certain stimuli and not to others which has made it what it now is. And having shown itself so far modifiable as to acquire these highly specialised senses which I possess, it is doubtless still modifiable in direc-tions as unthinkable to me as my eyesight would have been unthinkable to the oyster. (Myers, 1889, p. 190) …”

Myers believed in the metaphysical elements existing in the wider world around us. James paid tribute to Myers in his eulogy to Myers in 1901.

Also see

Morhloff’s review

My great foot injury debate

Since early August 2018 I have regrettably found myself in a serious medical dispute with the Adelaide Hills Community Health Service [AHCHS]. The AHCHS is a division of the wider South Australian Health Department. This matter has been before the courts and the Australian Disability Royal Commission has invited me to tell my story to it. This unfortunate incident in my retired life has distressed me a great deal and furthermore it has lead to me suffering a severe debility in respect to one of my feet. If you feel that my story might interest you it is to be found in this link. Note that this file was created in October 2019 so it is a little out of date.

Is this a sound manner in which to understand the mind and brain nexus?

I look at the four descriptive zones that broadly constitute the human mind and brain nexus. This is in relationship to our informational decision making processes.

This blog is in two sections. Section one that follows depicts the illustrative processes pertinent to the systematisation of random ontological information. This is information into packets and patterns of mechanical [logical] information. This system-process is the means by which decisions and types of decisions are made. Section two, immediately thereafter, provides elementary information as to how the system works as an integrated process.*

Notes with respect to the workings and meaning of the “Four Dimensional Mind-Brain Operating Function”

A. What the illustrative process seeks to do is:-

1. Bring together the four descriptive ‘zones’ that largely constitute the human mind and brain nexus and how they might connect with each other with respect to our normal daily lives. These four zones are the Logical, Analytical, Fact Based Quantitive Zone (top left), The Organised Sequential Planned Detail Zone (bottom left), the Holistic Intuitive Integration Synthesising zone (top right) and the Interpersonal Feelings Based Kinestetic Emotional Zone (bottom right). All of these zones are packets of information that are interconnected as though they are somehow attached to a stochastic neural network (NN). This is akin to the human mind-brain operational nexus system (process).

2. Broadly demonstrate how the NN and process system works and how it might be a useful tool in the understanding of how human thought construction might take place in the manner that it does. This includes human behaviour types that may emanate therefrom.

B. How the NN and Process system works:-

1. The square box represents the complete system. The system is informational, indicative and fluid. It is a system that works by means of the process of collating, integrating and assimilating information on behalf of its owner with respect to their condition, activities and aspirations at any given time or location in their lives including when they are sleeping.

The upper left A, lower left B, Lower right C and upper right D represent the inherent learned knowledge and experiential experiences of the system as has been and is lived by its owner. This includes ontologically. One may assume from this that the Cerebral Mode Thinking Processes, Right Mode Thinking Processes , Limbic Mind Thinking Processess and Left Mode Thinking Processes are potential mind-brain informational tendencies and influences on standby, to be ‘absorbed’ by the informational system as shown in the illustration. This is information that might be useful for its owner in deciding to do this or that at any given time with respect to his/her hopes, expectations and desires in life.

The outer circle represents the symbolic separation of these described tendencies and influences. These tendencies and influences are like short-lived informational fluctuations within the system that are waiting to be called upon by the wider system to do something on behalf of its owner. All decisions to do something by the NN system process can be seen as being packages of diversified information of subtle tendencies and influences (these tendencies and influences can also be seen as either energy or potential energy).

The lower dotted line under the circle represents the presence of the human mind (M) within the NN system. The M draws upon the random information between itself and the subtle tendencies and influences of the wider NN system as described beyond the outer line. The mind then packages them into bundles of patterns of information that might be useful for the benefit of its owner. These respective bundles might also be seen as packages and patterns of information on standby to do something. They also contain ontological information that might include any hidden hopes, dreams and desires its owner might have.

Below this dotted line are the four zones as described in section A. All of these have separate informational tendencies or influences to think and behave in some way that can be brought to bear on behalf of its owner. All of these four informational tendencies and influences are broadly scattered across the whole of the NN process. They exist as small informational nodes that can collectively bundle themselves into patterns of information (something meaningful and specific) on behalf of their owner. This can also mean collectively potentially waiting to do something on behalf of their owner. Patterns of tendencies and influences are stronger and more meaningful than single informational nodes ( a single node might be an idea whereas a pattern of nodes is more likely to be a collection of ideas).

The closed circle of the illustration is divided into four equal zones across the horizontal and vertical plane. You will notice that the Holistic Intuitive Integrating Synthesising zone and the Interpersonal Feeling Kinesthetic Emotional zones are jointly adjacent to the Right Mode Thinking Processes tendencies and influences on the right perimeter of the square.

From this example you might see how the influences and tendencies relating to the other two zones, from an anti-clockwise perspective, align themselves with the Left Mode Thinking Processes and the Cerebral Mode Thinking Processes respectively.

By considering the alignment of each of these four zone quantities (blocks of specific NN influences and tendencies) with each of their adjacent modes of thinking processes you will probably notice how the whole of the NN processes (also embracing M) provide a descriptive snapshot of the wider system. It also appears to show how and why the Four Dimensional Brain-Mind Operating Function seems to provide sound insight into the wider human NN condition.

C. How decisions are made to do something:-

This is the operational (mechanical) aspect of the hypothesis. Upper left section A and lower left section B should be considered as being mechanically static. The moving part of the NN process system is represented by the three-pointed star depicted in the illustration. You will note how I have separated it from the mind area of the nexus (system and process). This is because at this point the M only contains random information that has no specific (without time) meaning. This three pointed star ‘plucks’ loose information from M. It is also representative of the workings of the human brain (not the brain itself) that is perpetually operating within the wider NN process system.

The star is attached to an axle as illustrated in the diagram. In this sense, the axle is the heart of the human brain setup. Subtle informational fluctuations exist within and between the four zones areas that send and receive tendency and influence impulses from one or more of the zones. This could significantly include them all if any given set of adverse circumstances that its owner is experiencing deems this as being instinctively necessary. This includes the degree of power of these tendencies and influences as well. For example if its owner’s life or family were being threatened that severely agitated the NN system process somehow. The brain (the axle) has three primary tendency and influence impulses. These are the reptilian impulse (the dominant implicit impulse of the system), the Neocortex and the Limbic impulses.

The star is not rigid, but is subtly, and sometimes violently, swaying and flexing back and forth throughout the four-zone NN process system. However, this is not in the mind zone, which remains mechanically static at all times. This movement relates to the hopes, desires and expectations, (whether emotionally ontological or not) of its owner at any given time or circumstance. It is the primary tendencies and influences of the human brain that always move and process packages and patterns of raw information from within the system, including M. This collated information is to address the expectations of its owner. This includes to merely think about something in some type of way or another.

I briefly summarise the key contents of this document as follows:-

1. The complete illustration relates to information contained within it that represents its owner’s normal daily circumstances. It also illustrates the diverse range of operational tendencies and influences that might apply with any given owner who makes a decision to do something in their lives.

2. I have shown how the moving three pointed star representing the human brain operates with respect to the wider NN process system. This is in relation to the axle of the stars that I refer to as being informationally representative of the human brain. I have briefly cited the three primary tendencies and influences of this brain as they are represented with the rest of the system by means of the star.

3. I have shown how the symbolic axle brain and its attached stars moves backwards and forwards as its owner feels the need to do something in their daily lives. This is in respect to the four informational zones as discussed in section A as well as the associated brain axis. This combined arrangement, including the three influences and tendencies of each arm of the star (Reptilian, Limbic and Neocortex) is also representative of the complete mind, brain and decision making process nexus of the illustration.

4. Allied comments:-

It is my belief that the Logical, Analytical and Fact Based Quantitative and the Organised Sequential Planned Detailed zones of the NN process system are the explicit [rational] influences, tendencies and effects of the system. I include the Neocortex and Limbic system sections in this as well. I consider that the remainder of the NN system process as illustrated and describe as being the implicit (ontological) influences and tendencies of the system. These are influences and tendencies that cannot be scientifically measured but they can be informationally demonstrated. This includes what I consider to be the primary influence and tendency of the NN process system that is the reptilian influence and tendency.

5. I have decided that it is not appropriate for me to attempt to describe the wider workings of MacLean’s Triune mind/brain model. It is far too detailed to do so within this short discussion document. This video and this presentation may help you to better understand MacLean’s theory.

* I have not explained in detail all operating functions of the system, nor their wider operating potential.

She received a young man’s heart and was never the same again

An amazing story about a woman who was a heart transplant recipient and received a young man’s heart. She even started walking like a man afterwards

I quote from a Daily Mail online newspaper article dated 2008. I acknowledge that the article is nearly twelve years old, however because the article is straightforward to read I feel that it deserves to become a blog in its own right.

Quote:

“So can elements of a person’s character – or even their soul – be transplanted along with a heart?  One woman who believes this to be the case is CLAIRE SYLVIA, a divorced mother of one. She was 47 and dying from a disease called primary pulmonary hypertension when, in 1988, she had a pioneering heart-lung transplant in America. She was given the organs of an 18-year-old boy who had been killed in a motorcycle accident near his home in Maine. Claire, a former professional dancer, then made an astonishing discovery: she seemed to be acquiring the characteristics, and cravings, of the donor.”

Read more: http://www.dailymail.co.uk/health/article-558256/I-given-young-mans-heart—started-craving-beer-Kentucky-Fried-Chicken-My-daughter-said-I-walked-like-man.html#ixzz4hKwu4sUD

Also see:

Can a heart transplant change your identity?